Ammonia bunkering pilot safety study
The GCMD study was carried out by DNV, in partnership with Surbana Jurong and the Singapore Maritime Academy. The DNV-led consortium completed the study in April 2023, and the report can be downloaded here.
This study will establish the basis for a regulatory sandbox which will pave the way for an ammonia bunkering pilot.
Image courtesy of MPA
In 2018, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) declared its ambition to halve the total annual GHG emissions from international shipping by 2050 compared to 2008 levels. To meet this target, the transition to low-/zero-carbon fuels and technologies is necessary.
The case for ammonia
Ammonia is one amongst the slate of alternative fuel solutions available. With rapid deployment of renewable electricity, ammonia can potentially be produced at scale when green hydrogen is widely available. However, supply chain-related gaps need to be addressed before green ammonia can be safely used by the maritime industry. These include global green production capacity and supply, bunkering standards and procedures around safety, operations & the environment, bunkering infrastructure, the availability of ammonia-fuelled vessels and its overall impact to the marine environment.
Trials in Singapore
Singapore, as a global maritime hub, has a high concentration of shipping activities in its waters. With this level of maritime traffic and the proximity of bunkering and cargo operations activities to a population dense city state, stringent safety standards as well as comprehensive technical guidelines and procedures are required for bunkering operations. A successful trial of ammonia as a marine fuel in the port of Singapore sets a high bar and instils confidence that bunkering of this alternative fuel can be carried out in other sea ports around the world.
Identify and make recommendations to address technical, procedural and regulatory guidelines for ammonia transfer and bunkering
Recommend up to two sites in the port of Singapore for ammonia bunkering - one each for truck-to-ship and ship-to-ship ammonia bunkering modes
Draft technical and procedural guidelines for vessels and equipment, including processes in the supply chain, taking into consideration regulatory concerns
Generate a generic CAPEX model for cost estimation of ammonia bunkering infrastructure
Develop competency standards for manpower and relevant certifications required for bunkering operations
Validate & finalise findings with industry stakeholders across the supply chain
22 industry partners signed letters of collaboration to share confidential technical information with the consortium so a robust set of recommendations can be made to regulators.
Fuel producer: Yara
Fuel storage terminal operators: Advario, Vopak
Bunker suppliers + barge operators: Fratelli Cosulich, Hong Lam Marine, Kenoil, Pavillion Energy
Port terminal operators: Jurong Port, PSA
Vessel owners + operators: Asiatic Lloyd, Eastern Pacific Shipping, MOL, Navigator Gas, NYK, ONE, PIL
Shipyards + vessel design + consultancy: Keppel, SeaTech Solutions, Sembcorp Marine
Fuel (quality + quantity) testing service providers: National Metrology Centre, Viswa Lab, VPS
Industry Consultation & Alignment Panel
As part of this study, an Industry Consultation and Alignment Panel (iCAP) of 130 members was set up to solicit inputs in response to recommendations from this study before the report was finalised.