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Ammonia bunkering pilot safety study

The GCMD study was carried out by DNV, in partnership with Surbana Jurong and the Singapore Maritime Academy. The DNV-led consortium completed the study in April 2023, and the report can be downloaded here.

Ammonia bunkering study: Text
Image courtesy of MPA
This study will establish the basis for a regulatory sandbox which will pave the way for an ammonia bunkering pilot.

Image courtesy of MPA

Ammonia bunkering study: Quote

IMO target

In 2018, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) declared its ambition to halve the total annual GHG emissions from international shipping by 2050 compared to 2008 levels. To meet this target, the transition to low-/zero-carbon fuels and technologies is necessary.

The case for ammonia

Ammonia is one amongst the slate of alternative fuel solutions available. With rapid deployment of renewable electricity, ammonia can potentially be produced at scale when green hydrogen is widely available. However, supply chain-related gaps need to be addressed before green ammonia can be safely used by the maritime industry. These include global green production capacity and supply, bunkering standards and procedures around safety, operations & the environment, bunkering infrastructure, the availability of ammonia-fuelled vessels and its overall impact to the marine environment.

Trials in Singapore

Singapore, as a global maritime hub, has a high concentration of shipping activities in its waters. With this level of maritime traffic and the proximity of bunkering and cargo operations activities to a population dense city state, stringent safety standards as well as comprehensive technical guidelines and procedures are required for bunkering operations. A successful trial of ammonia as a marine fuel in the port of Singapore sets a high bar and instils confidence that bunkering of this alternative fuel can be carried out in other sea ports around the world.

Ammonia bunkering study: List


Ammonia bunkering study: Programs

Identify and make recommendations to address technical, procedural and regulatory guidelines for ammonia transfer and bunkering

Recommend up to two sites in the port of Singapore for ammonia bunkering - one each for truck-to-ship and ship-to-ship ammonia bunkering modes

Draft technical and procedural guidelines for vessels and equipment, including processes in the supply chain, taking into consideration regulatory concerns

Generate a generic CAPEX model for cost estimation of ammonia bunkering infrastructure

Develop competency standards for manpower and relevant certifications required for bunkering operations

Validate & finalise findings with industry stakeholders across the supply chain

Study partners

22 industry partners signed letters of collaboration to share confidential technical information with the consortium so a robust set of recommendations can be made to regulators.

Fuel producer: Yara

Fuel storage terminal operators: Advario, Vopak

Bunker suppliers + barge operators: Fratelli Cosulich, Hong Lam Marine, Kenoil, Pavillion Energy

Port terminal operators: Jurong Port, PSA

Vessel owners + operators: Asiatic Lloyd, Eastern Pacific Shipping, MOL, Navigator Gas, NYK, ONE, PIL

Shipyards + vessel design + consultancy: Keppel, SeaTech Solutions, Sembcorp Marine

Fuel (quality + quantity) testing service providers: National Metrology Centre, Viswa Lab, VPS

Ammonia bunkering study: List
Industry Consultation & Alignment Panel

As part of this study, an Industry Consultation and Alignment Panel (iCAP) of 130 members was set up to solicit inputs in response to recommendations from this study before the report was finalised.

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